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INTRODUCTORY ESSAY.                              211
and Banahal ranges separate Kashmir from the provinces of
Rajaori and Jamu; and the Wardwan range separates it from
Kishtwar to the east. The average elevation of the main
Himalayan chain north of Kashmir is about 14,000 feet; and
of the Pir-Panjal, to the south of it, 12,000; its loftiest sum-
mit being 15,000. The Banahal Pass between 'Kashmir and
Jamu is only 10,000 feet The course of the Jelam is first
from south-east to north-west, through the valley of Kashmir,
when it turns south-west after leaving the Walur Lake and
enters Marri. The elevation of its bed is 5300 feet at Srinagar
the capital, and continues so from Islamabad to the Walur
Lake, a distance of 50 miles.
Kashmir is not strictly analogous in situation or climate to
Kunawar or Kishtwar, but the summer rains are so much
interrupted that they can hardly be regarded as the effect of
a monsoon. Kashmir contains no Rhododendron arborewm
and no oaks, nor does'it produce Pinus Gerardiana. Its flora
is a curious mixture of the hot and dry vegetation of Afghani-
stan, with a few ordinary Himalayan forms on the one haud,
and many Persian and Caucasian ones on the other. From
its moderate elevation, and the great dryness of the atmo-
sphere throughout the year, the summers are very hot. Eicc
is the staple crop, and the vine is extensively cultivated. Many
of the eastern Himalayan forms which occur in Kashmir ex-
tend to Afghanistan, and some even to Persia; but their
number is small when compared with those of western origin.
Kashmir indeed contains many common European species,
which there find their eastern limit.
Of the many western forms that inhabit the valley, the fol-
lowing have not been collected further cast in the Himalaya,
though a few probably occur in Kishtwar:
Anemone liflora.                         Delphinium penicillatum.
.,     warci'Ssiflora.                Nymphsea dba.
Ranunculus Lingua*                  Scutcllaria gahriculata.
           cluzroplujlhs.            Lythrum Salicaria,
Jsopyrum tJiaUctroidcs.                CVrasus prostrata. -